LEARN MORE

Our Blog

An ongoing series of informational entries

Greater early weight gain and shorter breastfeeding are associated with low adolescent adiponectin levels.


Send to

Pediatr Obes. 2017 Mar 16. doi: 10.1111/ijpo.12212. [Epub ahead of print]

Greater early weight gain and shorter breastfeeding are associated with low adolescent adiponectin levels.

Reyes M1, Burrows R1, Blanco E2, Lozoff B3, Gahagan S2,3.

Author information

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Early life factors can programme future risk for cardiovascular disease.

OBJECTIVES:

We explored associations between adolescent adiponectin levels and concomitant metabolic alteration and also looked at the association between early life factors and adolescent adiponectin levels.

METHODS:

We studied a longitudinal cohort of low-income to middle-income Chilean adolescents who were enroled in an infancy iron-deficiency anaemia preventive trial and follow-up studies at the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile. In the 577 adolescents who were assessed as part of the 16-year follow-up, we evaluated independent associations between adiponectin levels and metabolic disturbances during adolescence. We also assessed the association between early life factors [short breastfeeding {<6 months} and infancy weight gain] and adolescent adiponectin levels.

RESULTS:

Participants were 16.8 years old (16.4-18.1), 48% female and 38% overweight/obese. Adolescent adiponectin levels were inversely associated with metabolic disturbances: altered homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [odds ratios {95% confidence interval} = 0.87 {0.79-0.95}, p-value = 0.002, and 0.90 {0.87-0.94}, p-value < 0.001, respectively], adjusting for sex and fat mass index. Early life factors were independently associated with adolescent adiponectin levels, which decreased 0.88 ug mL-1 per each unit increase in weight-for-age z-score between 0 and 6 months and was 1.58 ug mL-1 lower among participants with short breastfeeding.

CONCLUSIONS:

Higher adolescent adiponectin levels were independently associated with lower odds of metabolic disturbances. Greater weight gain during infancy and shorter breastfeeding were associated with lower adolescent adiponectin levels, supporting research indicating early life as a window of opportunity for prevention of later cardiovascular alterations. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

© 2017 World Obesity Federation

Breastfeeding knowledge and exclusive breastfeeding of infants in first six months of life



Breastfeeding knowledge and exclusive breastfeeding of infants in first six months of life

Zielińska MA1, Sobczak A1, Hamułka J1.

Author information

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Exclusive breastfeeding is the gold standard in infant nutrition. The maternal decision to breastfeed is affected by various factors, including breastfeeding knowledge.

OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of this study was the assessment of the breastfeeding knowledge in selected group of mothers of infants under 7 months and its relationship to the exclusivity of breastfeeding.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

The study was carried out using the CAWI method from Dec 2014 till Feb 2015 among 446 mothers (aged 18-42) of infants under 7 months. The most of women lived in towns >100.000 inhabitants, had an university education and normal pre-pregnancy BMI. Breastfeeding knowledge was estimated using 15 questions (both 6 in general and child-related category and 3 in mother-related category). Results were analysed using multivariate logistic analysis and Chi2 and U-Mann Whitney tests.

RESULTS:

57% (group A) of women exclusively breastfeed their infants and 43% (group B) did not. Average mean breastfeeding knowledge test score was 11.9±3.4 points. Higher mean was observed in group A compared with group B (12.9±2.8 vs. 10.6±3.7 points; p≤0.001). Predictors of lower score (<11 points) were professional education, overweight and living in the rural area. Each correct answer to questions in general (OR1.93; 95%CI 1.57-2.37) or in child-related (OR1.33; 95%CI 1.10-1.63) category improved the chance of exclusive breastfeeding. Women from group A had a better score in every question.

CONCLUSIONS:

Breastfeeding education for mothers may improve breastfeeding rates.




Multifunctional Bread Rich in Beta Glucans and Low in Starch Improves Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetes: A Controlled Trial. 


 Multifunctional Bread Rich in Beta Glucans and Low in Starch Improves Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetes: A Controlled Trial.

Tessari P1, Lante A2.

Author information

Abstract

DESIGN:

Functional foods may be useful for people with diabetes. The soluble fibers beta glucans can modify starch digestion and improve postprandial glucose response. We analyzed the metabolic effects of a specifically designed 'functional' bread, low in starch, rich in fibers (7 g/100 g), with a beta glucan/starch ratio of (7.6:100, g/g), in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Clinical and metabolic data from two groups of age-, sex- and glycated hemoglobin-matched diabetic subjects, taking either the functional bread or regular white bread, over a roughly six-month observation period, were retrieved.

RESULTS:

Bread intake did not change during the trial. The functional bread reduced glycated hemoglobin by ~0.5% (absolute units) vs. pre-treatment values (p = 0.028), and by ~0.6% vs. the control group (p = 0.027). Post-prandial and mean plasma glucose was decreased in the treatment group too. Body weight, blood pressure and plasma lipids did not change. The acceptance of the functional bread was good in the majority of subjects, except for taste.

CONCLUSIONS:

A starch-restricted, fiber-rich functional bread, with an increased beta glucan/starch ratio, improved long term metabolic control, and may be indicated in the dietary treatment of type 2 diabetes.

KEYWORDS:

beta glucan; fibers; metabolic control; plasma glucose; starch

PMID: 28304350 DOI: 10.3390/nu9030297